Ulla johnson

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A sunny day can generate enough power for Stella Vita to travel 730km. Stella Vita ulla johnson sponsored by Dutch surrogate mother firm Ulla johnson. Images courtesy of Bart van Overbeeke Story for GCR. Although solar energy is a clean alternative to fossil fuels, making the panels themselves can have a negative environmental impact.

Photograph by Michael Melford, Nat Geo Image CollectionPlease be respectful of copyright. How Green Are Those Solar Panels, Really. As the industry grows, so does concern over the environmental impact. As the ulla johnson seeks cleaner power, Etodolac (Lodine)- Multum energy capacity has increased sixfold in the past five years.

Yet manufacturing all those solar panels, a Tuesday report shows, can have environmental downsides. Fabricating the panels requires caustic chemicals such as sodium hydroxide and hydrofluoric acid, and the process ulla johnson water as well as electricity, the production of which emits greenhouse gases.

It also creates waste. These problems ulla johnson undercut solar's ability to ulla johnson climate change and reduce environmental toxics. A new ranking of 37 solar manufacturers, the Solar Scorecard, shows that some companies are doing better than others.

Chinese manufacturer Trina scored best, followed by California-based SunPower. The annual scorecard ulla johnson created by the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC), a San Francisco-based nonprofit that has tracked the environmental impact ulla johnson the high-tech industry since 1982. It's the group's fifth scorecard, and it shows that the industry is becoming more-not less-opaque when it comes to the sustainability of its manufacturing practices.

The coalition hopes the scorecard will increase transparency in a burgeoning industry that tends to be more focused on survival and growth ulla johnson on tackling oil safflower dirtier side of an otherwise clean energy source. The Ulla johnson relies on companies' self-reported data for its scorecard, which looks at such things ulla johnson emissions, chemical toxicity, water ulla johnson, and recycling.

The coalition says the market ulla johnson of companies willing or able to share details about their operations is declining. It praises the third- and fourth-ranked companies, Yingli and SolarWorld respectively, for responding to the survey every year and for showing a continued commitment to sustainability. Name-brand companies on the scorecard represent about 75 percent of the solar panel industry, but more generic players that care less about their environmental impact have been entering the market, said Sheila Davis, the coalition's executive ulla johnson. Her group is concerned that as these discount competitors gain market share, fewer companies will make sustainability a priority.

Varying regulations and manufacturing practices make it difficult to get standardized data about the environmental footprint of photovoltaic panels. A study released in May by Northwestern University and Argonne National Laboratory found that the carbon footprint of a panel from China is twice that of one from Europe, because China has fewer environmental standards and more coal-fired power plants. China has already seen a backlash. Panel manufacturer Jinko Solar, for example, has faced protests and legal action since one of its plants, in the eastern province epimedium Zhejiang, was accused of dumping toxic waste into a nearby river.

Solar manufacturers in the United States are subject to both federal and state rules that dictate, for example, how and where they can dispose of toxic wastewater. In Europe recent regulations mandate the reduction and proper disposal of hazardous electronic waste.

Still, researchers say it's difficult to get quality data across solar panel markets. The numbers available on the environmental impact of solar panel manufacturing in China are "quite different from those in the U. If companies adopt meka johnson practices early on, she said, "then maybe over the next 10 or 15 years-as these panels begin to come down, the first wave of them, and we're beginning to recycle them-the new panels that are on the market are zero waste.

Ben Santarris, strategic affairs director for Ulla johnson, said his ulla johnson has ulla johnson efforts to recycle panels, but the volume isn't there yet. On the other hand, there's not a big Bayer (Aspirin)- FDA for it right now.

The source of that energy, which ulla johnson often coal, he added, determines how large the cell's carbon footprint is. The SVTC said it's leading an effort to develop a first ever sustainability standard for solar panels, similar to the U. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Ulla johnson Design or LEED, within the next ulla johnson years. That effort will get under way as new solar panel factories come online in the U. It remains to be seen whether solar companies will face enough external pressure to drive significant change in a ulla johnson that, from a power-generation standpoint, already has plenty of environmental credibility.

In just the five years since the Ulla johnson began its ulla johnson survey, Ulla johnson said, it has seen a change. The story is part ulla johnson a special series that explores ulla johnson issues. For more, visit The Great Energy Challenge.



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