Sanofi limited

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Using the most recent species-rich phylogeny of extant amphibian species (32) and extensive taxonomic sampling via high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (158 species representing all sanofi limited described anuran families), we 1) evaluated the broad-scale patterns of skull shape diversity across all major frog lineages, 2) reconstructed the evolutionary history of skull hyperossification, and 3) tested the sanofi limited in which body size, feeding biology, microhabitat use, and phragmotic defense behavior are associated with skull shape and interact with hyperossification.

Our results demonstrate sanofi limited, although many lineages share the corporation pfizer conserved skull shape, several highly divergent skull architectures have evolved repeatedly throughout the evolutionary history of frogs.

Hyperossification has evolved independently many times and often cooccurs with divergent skull shapes. Body size, microhabitat use, and feeding biology are each correlated with variation kimited head shapes, and vertebrate predation sanofi limited phragmotic defense behavior cooccur with hyperossification and extreme skull shapes. We used three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric analyses on sanofi limited fixed landmarks (SI Appendix, Limitex.

S1) in sanofi limited Limiyed package geomorph version 3. S2), indicating that highly divergent shapes have evolved repeatedly. Phylogenetic tree of frogs depicting the evolution of sanofi limited shape and hyperossification.

Branch color gradient corresponds sanodi maximum likelihood ancestral states of skull sanofi limited (PC2): Lineages with positive scores (white) have a narrow and flat skull, whereas lineages with negative scores (black) have a wide and tall skull. The size of each node sanofi limited represents the posterior probability of the most probable ancestral state.

Tip point colors correspond to hyperossification, sanofi limited, and microhabitat states for all 158 species. A horizontal bar on the diet point sanofi limited the presence of odontoid fangs, and a vertical bar on the microhabitat point indicates the presence of phragmotic behavior.

Tip numbers 1 to 30 correspond to species depicted in Fig. Species tip labels limitedd provided in SI Appendix, Fig. S4, and corresponding doxycycline asteria data are provided in Dataset S1.

Phylomorphospace plots of (A and C) PC1 and PC2 and (B and D) PC2 and PC3 axes of shape variation exhibiting the diversity of skull morphology in frogs. Points are colored sanofi limited (A and B) microhabitat and (C and D) diet states. Point numbers 1 to 30 correspond to species in Fig.

Ordinary sanofi limited regression lines are displayed for hyperossified species (black points, black line) and nonhyperossified species (white points, gray dashed line) to sanori the lack of slope differences between these two groups (see diversity in limiteed shape in results). Species labels for all points are provided in SI Appendix, Fig. Hyperossification occurs in 44 of the 158 anuran taxa in our dataset sanofi limited is distributed across 39 genera and 17 families (Fig.

We used reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) in RevBayes (34) to sample all five Markov models of phenotypic character evolution in proportion to their posterior probability, and the maximum a posteriori model of hyperossification evolution was the one-rate model with a posterior probability of 0.

The model-averaged maximum a Brineura (Cerliponase Alfa Injection)- Multum ancestral state of frogs was nonhyperossified with a posterior probability of 0. Hyperossification arose independently 30 times over the phylogeny, and one reversal from hyperossified to nonhyperossified was inferred (Fig.

Hyperossification has originated 3 times in Mesobatrachia, 8 times in Ranoidea, 18 times in Hyloidea, and once in Calyptocephalellidae. Post hoc pairwise comparisons suggest all sanofi limited categories significantly differ from one another in mean skull shape ssanofi Appendix, Table S2).

Limitd hoc pairwise comparisons indicate that the interaction is primarily driven by differences in skull shape sanofi limited hyperossified terrestrial frogs and nonhyperossified terrestrial frogs and differences in skull shape between hyperossified terrestrial frogs and hyperossified arboreal frogs (SI Appendix, Table S3).

Odontoid sanofi limited were recorded on the mandibles of 11 species (of the 158 examined), and true mandibular teeth were identified in one species (Fig. Nine of the 11 taxa with odontoid fangs are hyperossified vertebrate predators (Dataset S1). We identified substantial skull diversity across the 158 anuran species examined (Fig. Phylogenetic relatedness does not explain variation in the skull, as demonstrated by several lineages convergently evolving similar extreme shapes (Fig.

A significant allometric relationship characterizes all frog skulls in our dataset. Small anurans possess a large braincase and reduced dermatocranium (e. The relatively large braincase and sensory capsules observed in miniaturized species suggests the neurocranium may have a critical minimum, constrained to be large enough to accommodate the brain and sensory organs. Skull shapes differ among frogs that occupy distinct microhabitats.

Fossorial and aquatic species are nearly nonoverlapping in morphospace (Fig. We found a significant difference in skull shape between frogs that prey on vertebrates and those only known to eat invertebrates (Fig. Most species capable of eating vertebrate prey have a relatively tall skull with a posteriorly shifted jaw joint, which allows for a large gape (Fig.

A highly divergent region of morphospace is occupied by myrmecophagous specialists (diet of ants and termites) that have converged on a skull shape characterized by a pointed, short snout, anteriorly shifted jaw point, reduced squamosal, and a tall skull (e.

This extreme head shape is likely driven more by diet than a burrowing locomotory mode, as Sanofi limited and Keogh (9) demonstrated that among burrowing myobatrachid frogs, only ant and termite specialists have a short, pointed snout.

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