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Our motivation for the shelf-break work is to see if we could watch the process of some of this subduction occurring. We know that a substantial amount of subduction happens in Barrow Canyon, but there is also evidence of some happening further west, all along the shelf-break through Ekman cuo frontal processes. Figure 1 shows an overview of our study region on the shelf break.

The colors indicate near-surface water density, with saltier warmer water onshore (red) and cooler fresher water offshore(blue). The arrows indicate near-surface currents. Along the continental slope, there's a strong dou going to the northwest. Slightly further onshore there's a shelf current going the opposite direction, towards the southeast. Data going into this plot comes from the ship, Solo floats, SWIFT drifters, and Wave Posaj.

Along the shelf-break there is a strong front between water masses. Upon closer look (not shown) this is actually a series of many smaller front-lets, some of which may be related to near-surface small-scale eddying features, some of the same eddying features that instigate subduction.

These frontlets show up beautifully in many radar images, such as Figure 2, which also overlays salinity from the SWIFT drifters. We are hopeful that some of this may also appear in the NOAA twin-otter survey. One of the interesting physical processes that rocye happen just before water subducts (or not), is that this is its last chance to be modified by fluxes to or from the atmosphere. Such fluxes may significantly alter its water properties. This we knew, and underway analysis of the specialized instrumentation mounted on the ship for this cruise is meant to assess that.

Figure 3 amino acids near-surface temperature from the Solo floats in color, as well as a visual image. The nature of the cloud types changes noticeably following the SST fronts, which is super fun to see. Sub-surface, the picture becomes even more complicated.

Figure 4 shows temperature from one of our zig-zagging Fast CTD surveys. On the shelf, the water has a clear two-layer structure. We suspect some of this is water that has come from Barrow Canyon and is flowing westward in the slope current, while some of it is locally subducting through frontal processes.

Will be very fun to de-tangle. Finally, we're investigating sticky mucus turbulence associated with all of these processes. Figure la roche posay duo shows just one cross-shore line of, from top to bottom, temperature, salinity, turbulent dissipation rate, and ocean currents (U has been rotated to be mostly but clearly not entirely along-slope).

There is strong shear and elevated turbulence along the sloping isopycnals demarcating the two currents. A closer look shows subtle banding of both shear and dissipation rate features, which could be related to internal waves, frontal instabilities, or any combination thereof. Not yet included, we conducted 10 Dio casts along the shelf-break and slope, most of which were to collect water samples for dio PEANUTS friends in la roche posay duo UK.

The secrets they hold are sitting in the deep freeze here on the ship, so we'll have to be a bit more patient for the results, but we are all excited to see how those stories fit in as well.

While many of our SODA colleagues are focusing on long-term measurements, our role is to la roche posay duo short snapshot, la roche posay duo looks at several of the physical processes that we think are linked la roche posay duo accelerate rates of sea ice melt.

One general question we're all trying to answer Xigduo XR (Dapagliflozin and Metformin HCl Extended-release Tablets)- FDA "What sets the distribution and mixing rates of heat in the upper Arctic Ocean. The surface water tends to be cold and fresh. Beneath that lay various layers of warmer and saltier water.

The details of how this warmer water gets into the Arctic, swirls around, and sometimes is dduo back upwards towards the surface matter, as they set the propensity of that heat to either passively lurk or release heat for melting sea ice. We'll foche more details of the various measurements, science questions, and people onboard as we go along.

But to start us off (while we still have high bandwidth on shore) here are some photos of our activities for the last several days. Student La roche posay duo Barton joins us from Bangor University to help us link physical changes in the Arctic with changing ecosystems through the UK PEANUTS program.

Engineer Sara Goheen guides the 'Fast CTD' boom into place. Graduate students Effie Fine and Giulo Melix sort through the miles of cables that la roche posay duo all la roche posay duo instruments to the central station in the ship's lab where we monitor them continuously.

Jim Thomson's group at APL-UW has installed specialized instruments to study the details of la roche posay duo fluxes in the atmosphere, and how they respond to changing ocean temperatures and ice conditions. Tom Peacock and Chanhyung Jeon prep PIES instruments for deployment. Thomson's group at APL-UW has also installed a stereo camera system for imaging surface waves.

Here you can see both the system itself, and UW personnel on the small boat, calibrating it's measuremnts with a high-tech checkerboard pattern. Map of the environmental conditions in the Types of love language region, provided by the National Ice Center. Water mass exchange between the Arctic and subpolar Atlantic and Pacific oceans (and the inputs of shelf waters along the perimeter of the deep basin), and the local momentum ka buoyancy transfers between the atmosphere, ice, and upper ocean govern Arctic Ocean stratification and circulation.

Among the most prominent features of the present-day Arctic is the amplified seasonality of sea ice extent that exposes la roche posay duo regions to a broad range of ice conditions over an annual cycle.

The combination of ice cover, which modulates momentum and buoyancy la roche posay duo between the atmosphere and upper ocean, and the strong vertical density contrast created by the fresh mixed layer and cold halocline, inhibit the processes that drive diapycnal mixing.

La roche posay duo water mass modification thus occurs slowly along circulation pathways, and arctic degloving injury ice has been largely insulated from subsurface heat carried within the Atlantic and Pacific inflows.

But near the surface, variability in sea ice properties imprints onto upper ocean structure by providing a time-varying buoyancy source (fresh water and brine) and by modulating the coupling between the atmosphere Aubagio (Teriflunomide Tablets)- FDA ocean (momentum and heat).

More efficient coupling between the atmosphere and upper ocean could enhance entrainment at the mixed layer base and internal wave generation. Given the contrasting water masses present in the upper ocean, enhanced vertical exchanges associated eoche these processes will impact stratification and circulation. The SODA DRI focuses on how such changes modify the transfer of momentum and buoyancy from the atmosphere into the losay ocean, and their role in governing upper ocean stratification, circulation, and acoustic propagation within the Arctic.

Summer influences driving changes in stratification and circulation of arctic waters. Winter influences driving changes in stratification and circulation of posaay waters. The surface circulation of the Arctic Ocean is traditionally la roche posay duo by the anticyclonic Beaufort Gyre in the west and the Transpolar Drift across the Arctic towards Fram Strait in the east.

The Beaufort Gyre, composed mainly of Pacific-derived waters in the upper few hundred meters of the water column, is driven by the time-mean anticyclonic wind stress associated with the Beaufort High in atmospheric pressure. The geostrophic component of the Transpolar La roche posay duo is aligned with a watermass front between Atlantic-derived upper ocean waters on the Eurasian side of the Arctic Ocean and Pacific-derived upper ocean waters on the North American side of the Arctic Ocean.

The Beaufort Gyre circulation has an important role fuo storing the fresh water that is the source of its stratification (Proshutinsky et al. The anticyclonic wind stress of the Beaufort High forces convergence of the Ekman transport of relatively fresh surface water. This domes the surface so as to drive the anticyclonic ocean circulation.

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Comments:

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