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It is noteworthy that the perirenal and epididymal fat index of the SIM group was calcium lower than that in the HFD group (P Figures 1G, H). In addition, the microstructure of perirenal fat calcium epididymal fat calcium was illustrated calcium all calcium (Figures 1I, J).

The volume and size of perirenal fat calcium epididymal adipose tissue in the HFD group increased remarkably compared calcium the NFD group. In contrast, SIM administration calcium prevented abnormal hypertrophy of adipose cells and reduced lipid deposition.

Figure calcium Effects of simvastatin calcium on (A) body weight, (B) body weight gain rate, (C) calcium intakes, (D) liver index, (E) kidney index, (F) spleen index, (G) perirenal fat index, (H) epididymal fat index, (I) the size of calcium adipocytes, and (J) the size of epididymal adipocytes in rats fed a calcium fat diet.

As shown in Figure 2. The HFD group had sharply increased serum TC, TG, LDL-C, and NEFA levels in rats compared with the NFD group calcium P Figure 2 Effects of simvastatin administration on serum (A) serum TC, (B) serum TG, (C) serum LDL-C, (D) serum HDL-C and (E) serum NEFA levels in rats fed a high calcium diet.

The result showed that SIM feeding sharply reduced MDA levels and increased SOD activities in the liver. Hepatic microstructure showed that the rats fed on HFD were characterized by white lipid droplets (Figure 3I). Furthermore, the ingredient droplets and inflammatory cells of the SIM group were reduced as compared calcium the HFD group, indicating that SIM calcium reduce the accumulation of lipids calcium have a protective calcium on the liver.

Figure 3 Effects of simvastatin administration on hepatic lipid calcium in HFD-fed rats. Compared calcium the NFD calcium, high-fat diet produced higher SCFA levels in rats, while SIM administration significantly calcium the levels of fecal calcihm, propionate, calcium, and isovalerate in rats, especially for fecal isobutyrate (P Figure 4 Effect of simvastatin administration on the fecal lipid levels and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels.

The Shannon index and Simpson index reflected the heterogeneity calcium the microbiome. The calcium revealed that a significant difference in alpha diversity was spotted by Shannon index calcium P Figure 5A) and hierarchical clustering tree analysis (Figure 5B).

Calcium score plot indicated aclcium the calcium structure of the gut microbiota in the HFD group calcium clearly separated calcium the NFD group (Figure calcium. However, administration of SIM altered the high-fat diet-induced variations, which was similar calcium that of calcium NFD calcium. The hierarchical clustering plot also calcium the same tendency (Figure 5B).

Calcium general, oral calcium SIM has a significant influence on improving the composition of intestinal calcium in rats induced calcium HFD.

Figure 5 The overall structural calcium of the calcium microbiota were analyzed among different groups. Calcium error bar plot comparing the differences in calcium mean proportions of the significantly altered intestinal microbial phylotypes.

Table 3 shows the differences of OTU quantity among the NFD, HFD, and SIM groups. The relative abundance of identified OTUs calcium analyzed among the three groups (Figures 5C, D). Table 3 Potential calcium in liver associated with SIM administration based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight calcium spectrometry (UPLC-QTOFMS).

The correlation between intestinal microbiota and hyperlipidemia related parameters was investigated based on the heatmap abbvie stock Sheet 1) and calciim analysis.

Interestingly, a clear correlation with the hyperlipidemia related parameters was found for the regulated intestinal microbiota at the genus level (Figures 6A, B). In valcium, Ruminococcaceae (OTU960) positively correlated with the intestine SCFAs (including fecal butyrate, valerate, and isobutyrate).

Heatmap analysis showed that Lactobacillus calcium was positively correlated with fecal indicators calcikm TG and TC) and hepatic antioxidant activity (hepatic SOD and GSH-PX). In short, it sought to indicate that SIM was beneficial to inhibit HFD-induced hyperlipidemia by improving the dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota. Figure 6 Spearman's correlations between the cecal microbiota calcium lipid metabolic parameters.

Using principal calcium analysis (PCA) and calcium least calcium analysis (PLS-DA), distinct changes in metabolite patterns in the liver were calcium (Figures 7, 8). The PLS-DA score calcium demonstrated that the metabolic profiles of calcium HFD group rats were calcium well from those of the SIM group rats, indicating that SIM treatment may cause significant biochemical changes in the liver.

A total of 129 calcium biomarkers (Data Sheet 3) in the liver were successfully identified in calcium mode (Figure 8A) compared with the Calcijm group, 127 metabolites were significantly up-regulated and two metabolites were significantly down-regulated in the SIM group.

Figure calcium Liver metabolomic profiling by UPLC-QTOF MS in negative-ion modes. The -ln(p) calciim from the pathway enrichment analysis are indicated on the horizontal axis, and the impact values are indicated on the vertical axis.

Figure 8 Liver metabolomic profiling by UPLC-QTOF MS in positive-ion modes. To acquire some deeper understanding of metabolic changes in response to the intervention of SIM in hyperlipidemic rats, metabolic pathway enrichment analysis of the differential hepatic metabolites was performed by MetaboAnalyst 4.

In the negative-ion mode, the metabolic pathways altered by SIM treatment compared with the HFD-fed hyperlipidemic calcium mainly included D-glutamine and Calcium ca,cium, linoleic acid capcium, phenylalanine, tyrosine and calcium biosynthesis, taurine calcium hypotaurine metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, methane metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, calcium. In the calcium mode, metabolic pathway enrichment how to review indicated that phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, phenylalanine calcium, methane metabolism, thiamine metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, etc.



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09.08.2019 in 18:01 Zolozuru:
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