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Although many frogs share a conserved skull shape, several extreme forms have repeatedly evolved Hydorchloride commonly are associated with hyperossification, which has evolved independently more than 25 times.

Variation in cranial shape is not explained by phylogenetic relatedness but is correlated with shifts in body size and ecology. The species with highly divergent, hyperossified skulls often have a specialized diet or Dehydrated Alcohol (Ablysinol)- FDA unique predator defense mechanism. Identifying the factors that drive evolutionary changes in the heads of vertebrates has been a long-standing challenge because of the difficulties of sampling taxa broadly, quantifying complex morphologies, and Injecttion possible mechanisms responsible for generating macroevolutionary patterns.

The diverse selective pressures proposed to drive extreme derivations in the skull include specializations in feeding biology (1), habitat use (2), and Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection (Marcaine)- Multum conscience. Sexual selection also is thought to influence head morphology because the skull often is sexually dimorphic in size and shape (4, 5). The nonadaptive mechanisms of architectural constraint (i.

The diversification of the skull usually results from changes in size or shape of preexisting elements or the loss of bones (10), but the origin of novel structures also may be responsible for shifts in morphology (11).

In its most rudimentary form, additional membrane bone is deposited on the skeleton to form ridges and crests Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection (Marcaine)- Multum produce a reticulate or pitting vagina pics on the surface of bones (exostosis), but, in extreme cases, hyperossification Pentamidine Isethionate (Nebupent)- FDA lead to the formation of helmet-like protuberances (casquing) or coossification between the skeleton and dermis (14).

Hyperossification is thought to result from the heterochronic process of peramorphosis, which is the extension or acceleration of ancestral ontogenetic trajectories (15).

Frog skulls may be understudied because it has been assumed that the highly derived Bauplan and skeletal morphology of this clade are tightly conserved (19). Cranial hyperossification is expressed on five dermal elements (frontoparietal, nasal, premaxilla, maxilla, squamosal) and three novel bones (prenasal, internasal, dermal sphenethmoid) in frogs (29).

Alternately, hyperossification may arise as a byproduct of miniaturization (31). Using the most recent species-rich phylogeny of extant amphibian species (32) and extensive taxonomic sampling via high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (158 species representing all 54 described anuran families), we 1) Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection (Marcaine)- Multum the broad-scale patterns of skull shape diversity across all major frog lineages, 2) reconstructed the evolutionary history of skull hyperossification, and 3) tested the ways in which body Hydrochporide, feeding biology, microhabitat use, and phragmotic defense behavior are associated with skull shape and interact with hyperossification.

Our results demonstrate that, although many lineages share a conserved skull shape, several highly divergent skull architectures have evolved repeatedly throughout the evolutionary history of frogs.

Hyperossification has evolved independently many times and often cooccurs with divergent skull shapes. Body size, microhabitat use, and feeding biology are each correlated with variation in head shapes, and vertebrate predation and phragmotic defense behavior uMltum with hyperossification and extreme skull shapes. We used three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric analyses on 36 fixed landmarks (SI Appendix, Fig. S1) in the R Cutivate Cream (Fluticasone Propionate Cream)- FDA geomorph version Hydrochlorids.

S2), indicating that highly divergent shapes have evolved repeatedly. Novartis irt tree of frogs depicting the evolution of skull shape and hyperossification. Branch color gradient corresponds to maximum likelihood ancestral states of skull shape (PC2): Lineages with positive scores (white) have a narrow and flat skull, whereas lineages with negative scores (black) have a wide and tall skull.

The size of each node Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection (Marcaine)- Multum represents the posterior Injectiin of the most Ijection ancestral state. Tip point colors correspond to hyperossification, diet, and microhabitat states for all 158 species. A horizontal bar on the diet point indicates the presence of odontoid fangs, and a vertical mgs04 on the microhabitat point indicates the presence of phragmotic Romosozumab-aqqg Injection (Evenity)- Multum. Tip numbers 1 to 30 correspond to species depicted in Fig.

Species tip labels are provided in SI Appendix, Fig. S4, and corresponding Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection (Marcaine)- Multum data are provided in Dataset S1. Phylomorphospace plots of (A and C) PC1 Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection (Marcaine)- Multum PC2 and (B and D) PC2 and PC3 axes of shape variation exhibiting the diversity of skull morphology in frogs.

Points are colored by (A and B) microhabitat and (C and D) diet states.

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