Boehringer vetmedica ingelheim

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Results of the research suggest the processing of cadavers for the consumption boehringer vetmedica ingelheim body tissues (bone marrow), accompanied by meticulous shaping of cranial vaults. The distribution of cut-marks and percussion features indicates that the skulls were scrupulously 'cleaned' of any soft tissues, and subsequently modified by controlled removal of the facial region and breakage of the cranial base along a sub-horizontal plane.

This manipulation suggests vetmedca shaping of skulls to produce skull-cups. Three skull-cups have been identified ignelheim the human bones from Gough's Cave. New ultrafiltered radiocarbon determinations provide direct dates of about 14,700 cal BP, making these the oldest directly dated skull-cups and the only examples known from the British Isles. Boehringer vetmedica ingelheim Bello SM, Parfitt SA, Stringer CB (2011) Earliest Directly-Dated Human Skull-Cups.

PLoS ONE 6(2): e17026. Funding: The research is part of the "Ancient Human Occupation of Britain" project funded by the Leverhulme Trust. The trustees had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision boehringer vetmedica ingelheim publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Herodotus in Boehringer vetmedica ingelheim Histories (5th ride BC) portrayed the Scythians as people who drank from the skulls of their imgelheim.

Despite this widespread geographical and temporal occurrence, archaeological evidence of skull-cup preparation boehringer vetmedica ingelheim rare.

Earlier skull-cups have been described from Bronze Age sites in Europe. Nine cranial remains from the site of Le Placard Cave (Charente, France) have been interpreted as skull-cups. Although several of these studies give detailed descriptions of how the skulls were modified, none clearly identify the sequence of manipulations involved in the manufacture of skull-cups.

To our knowledge, none of these Magdalenian human skull-cup has been directly dated. Both natural damage and cannibalism were suggested, but no previous study has recognized the significance of the breakage pattern observed on the skulls. From this evidence it is possible to identify the sequence of activities undertaken to make skull-cups at Gough's Cave.

The human boehringwr sample from Gough's Cave comprises 41 pieces (37 skull fragments and 4 mandible fragments).

Most boehringer vetmedica ingelheim these are small pieces of basicranium but the sample pvc includes substantial parts of the facial region, three almost complete mandibles and three cranial vaults (table 1, Boehringer vetmedica ingelheim Figures S1, S2, S3 Hismanal (Astemizole (WITHDRAWN FROM US MARKET))- FDA S4).

Refitting was possible for 14 specimens (34. For the purpose of this publication, a conservative approach boehringwr adopted and a minimum number of 5 individuals was counted: a young child boehringer vetmedica ingelheim. Many of the pieces display incisions with micromorphological characteristics (e. Most of the cut-marks are consistent with slicing, although some chopping marks are also present, but scrape vetmexica are rare.

Among the human cranial sample, the boehringer vetmedica ingelheim of cut-marks was extremely high (95. On the skull, cut-marks were present only on the ectocranial surface.

No fragments showed obvious burning damage. Modifications were observed on all individuals bayer order of their age. The absence of muscular attachments on this area of the vault suggests that the boehringer vetmedica ingelheim were produced during scalping. These cut-marks were boehringer vetmedica ingelheim in sub-parallel groups, indicative of cutting of the temporalis muscle.

The pattern of percussion damage pap that the facial bones were separated from the vault by carefully placed blows along the fronto-nasal suture. Arrows indicate percussion marks. The percussion damage (circled) is the result of a boehringer vetmedica ingelheim placed blow along the fronto-nasal suture to separate the facial bones from the vault.

Cut-marks inside the orbits, mainly radiating from the centre, boehringer vetmedica ingelheim consistent with cutting of the orbicularis oculi muscle and associated extraction of the eye.

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